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MLA Citation Style 9th Edition: Putting Together the Works Cited List

What is a Works Cited List

  • The Works Cited list appears at the end of the paper on a separate page (or pages, if necessary).
  • Put the title, "Works Cited", at the beginning of the list.
  • Lists the citations for all of the cited sources in alphabetical order according to the last name of the author.
  • If no author is listed, alphabetize by the first word in the title (ignoring "A", "An" or "The" at the beginning of a title). Do not organize the citations by type of source.
  • For multiple works by a same author,  alphabetize the works (book, article or other documents) by title  (ignoring "A", "An" or "The" at the beginning of a title). Use the author's name for the first entry and three hyphens followed by a period for the subsequent entries. For example:

Shakespeare, William, Macbeth. Dover Publications, 1993.

- - -. Much ado about nothingEdited by Sheldon P. Zitner, Oxford UP, 1998.

  • But if the author is the first of multiple authors in the subsequent entries, repeat the name in full (MLA 5.128)
  • The first line of each citation is not indented, but each line of each citation after the first line is indented (the opposite of a typical paragraph).
  • Skip a line between each citation.
  • Book, magazine, journal and newspaper titles are always italicized.
  • Article titles are always put in "quotations".
  • Subtitles are preceded by a colon ( : ).
  • All words in any titles (of books, articles or other documents) are capitalized , except the following parts of speech (when they are not the first word in a title or subtitle):
    • Articles ( a , an , the )
    • Prepositions (e.g., in , of , to , against , between )
    • Coordinating conjunctions ( and , but , for , nor , or , so , yet )
    • the to in infinitives (as in How to Play Chess )


Works Cited

Anderson, Craig A. "Effects of Violent Movies and Trait Hostility on Hostile Feelings and Aggressive Thoughts." Aggressive Behavior, vol. 23, no. 3, May-June 1997, pp. 161+.

Andrews, Sam. "Videos Not Blamed for Violence." Billboard, 24 Jan. 1998, pp. 82+.

Bok, Sissela. Mayhem: Violence as Public Entertainment. Addison-Wesley,1998. 

Cesarone, Bernard. "Television Violence and Children." Childhood Education, vol. 75, no.1, Fall 1998, pp. 56+. Academic OneFile, Gale, .

Dodge, Kenneth A. "Framing Public Policy And Prevention Of Chronic Violence In American Youths." The American Psychologist, vol. 63, no. 7, 2008, pp. 573-590. MEDLINE, doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.63.7.573

Gibeaut, John. "Deadly Inspiration." ABA Journal, June 1997, pp. 62+. 

Goldstein, Jeffrey, ed. Why We Watch: The Attractions of Violent Entertainment. Oxford UP, 1998. 

Hough, Kirstin J., and Philip G. Erwin. "Children's Attitudes Toward Violence on Television." Journal of Psychology, vol. 131, no. 4, July 1997, pp. 411+. Academic Search Elite, EBSCOhost,

Lazar, Bonnie A. "The Lull of Tradition: A Grounded Theory Study of Television Violence, Children and Social Work." Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, vol. 15, no. 2, Apr. 1998, pp. 117+.

- - -. "Old Battles, New Frontiers: A Study of Television Violence and Social Work with Children." Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, vol. 13, no. 6, Dec. 1996,  pp. 527+.

Levine, Madeline. Viewing Violence: How Media Violence Affects Your Child's and Adolescent's Development. Doubleday, 1996. 

Mifflin, Lawrie. "Many Researchers Say Link is Already Clear on Media and Youth Violence." The New York Times, 9 May 1999, late ed., sec. 1, p. 23. 

Murray, John P., Eli A. Rubinstein, and George A. Comstock, editors. Television and Social Behavior, Reports and Papers: A Technical Report to the Surgeon General's Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior. National Institute of Mental Health, 1972. 

Sampson, John. Weather Makers. Atlantis Press, 1999. 

Strasburger, Victor C. Adolescents and the Media: Medical and Psychological Impact. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, vol. 33. Sage Publications, 1995. 

Tribe, Laurence. "The Internet vs. the First Amendment." Editorial. The New York Times, 28 Apr. 1999, late ed., p. A29.

Wekesser, Carol, editor. Violence in the Media. Current Controversies. Greenhaven Press, 1995.