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MLA Citation Style 9th Edition: Audio/Video/Media

Film or Video Recording

Citation description:
Title. Contributor(s)' information such as Directed by Director’s First Name Last Name, optionally you may add narrated by, performance by, produced by, written by the name(s) of the contributor(s), Original release date, if relevant. Distributor, Year of current release.

Citation examples:

Bioterror. Directed by Kirk Wolfinger, produced and writtern by Matthew Collins, WGBH Education Foundation, 2002. 

Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media. Directed and produced by Mark Achbar and Peter Wintonick, 1992. Zeitgeist Films, 2002. 

The Tuxedo. Directed by Kevin Donovan, produced by John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder, performance by Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt, DreamWorks, 2002. 

Note: If your discussion of the work focuses on the contributor (for example, the performance of an actor or the ideas of the screenwriter,) begin the entry with the contributor's name instead (MLA 24).

Citation examples:

Williams, Robin, performer. Dead Poets Society. Directed by Peter Weir, Touchstone Pictures presents in association with Silver Screen Partners IV, distributed by Buena Vista Pictures, 1989.

Spielberg, Stephen, director. Close encounters of the third kind. 1977. Director's cut, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2007.

If a video was accessed via an online streaming service, add the streaming service's name as the title of the second container.

Citation description:

Title. Directed by name of the director, the film studio or distributor, the release year. The name of the streaming service (if available), URL without http:// or https:// unless you want to provide a live link in an online paper.

Citation example:

Zootopia. Directed by Byron Howard and Rich Moore, Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, 2016.

Trust me : how do you know what to believe. Directed by Roko Belic, New Day Films, 2020. Kanopy.




Television or Radio Program

Citation description:
"Title of specific program or episode." Author, Director or Narrator if any. Title of Series, season #, episode #, producing company, Network. Broadcasting station (if from local station rather than directly from a network), Date of broadcast.

Citation example:

"Cuba and Cocaine." Narrated by Bill Moyers. Frontline, Documentary Consortium, PBS, WTVS, 18 Jan. 2002. 

"The Pilgrims." Directed by Ric Burns. American Experience, season 27, episode 11, PBS, 24 Nov. 2015.

Sound Recording

Citation description:
Artist, performer, composer, or conductor depending on which person is most responsible for the production or who you wish to emphasize. "Title of song." Title of the recording (or the titles of the works included), performance by name of artist or artists (when distinct from a first-listed person or group), Manufacturer, year of issue. 

Citation examples:

song from a compact disc:

Coltrane, John. "Giant Steps." The Last Giant: The John Coltrane Anthology, Rhino, 1993.  

No composer shown:

Lewiston, David. Fiestas of Peru: Music of the High Andes, Nonesuch Records, 1972. 

Composer and performer different:

Guthrie, Woody. Pete Seeger Sings Woody Guthrie. Performance by Pete Seeger, Folkways, 1968. 

Song from YouTube:

McLean, Don. "Vincent ( Starry, Starry Night) With Lyrics." YouTube, Uploaded by wysty67, Accessed 23 Nov. 2016.

Online Video Clip, e.g. YouTube video

Citation description:
Filmmaker's name, if available. "Title." Title of Web site, contributor's name (if any), date the video was posted on the site, URL without  http :// or https:// (you may include them as live link if submitting paper online). Date of viewing. 

Citation example:

Gallucci, Tony. "Sherman Alexie Speaks." YouTube, uploaded by Milk River Film, 9 Nov. 2007, Accessed 25 Oct. 2016.

See also Citing Material Posted on Social Media Platforms.


Citation description:

Title of the advertisement or a description (name of the product or company being advertised).  The name of the magazine or newspaper, the date of the issue, the page number where the advertisement was found.

Citation examples:
Truth by Calvin Klein. Vogue, Dec. 2000, pp. 95-98. 

If the advertisement is online, provide the URL.

What the Constitution Means to Me. The New York Times, 16 May 2018,

If the advertisement is a pop-up ad, add this information at the end of the citation.