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Each link shows you how to create a specific MLA citation type for a "Works Cited" list
MLA Handbook by
Publication Date: 2016-04-01
MLA Format (commonly used for English and other humanities papers)
Significant revisions in MLA handbook (8th edition) that was published in April 2016. The work's publication format is no longer considered. Citations are created using MLA's list of core elements:
| 1. Author.
||Include maximum two authors in the entry (first author's last name, first name and second author's name in direct order; for more than two authors, list the first author's last name, first name, followed by a comma and et al.
|2. Title of source.
||In quotation mark if the source is part of a larger work, but italicized it if the source is self-contained; for example, an article title is placed in quotation mark, but a book title is italicized.
|3. Title of container,
||Italicized; title of a periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper), a collection of essays, stories, poems, a website, a television series, a comic book series, etc.,
|4. Other contributors,
||Precede contributors' name with a description of the role such as: adapted by, directed by, edited by, illustrated by, introduction by, narrated by, performance by, translated by, etc.,
||Editions (e.g., 2nd ed., expanded ed., updated ed., etc.), versions (e.g., unabridged version, director's cut, etc.),
||Precede volume number with vol. (e.g., vol. 2), issue number with no. (e.g., no. 12), spell out the season number of a television series (e.g.,, season 2, episode 6),
||If the name of a publisher is not indicated on the source cited, but available in another reliable source, cite the name in square brackets (MLA 2.6.1); do not use n.p.,
|8. Publication date,
||If there are more than one publication date, cite the date that is most relevant (for example, when citing an online article, cite only the online publication date if it is different from the print one). If the publication date is not indicated on the source cited, but available in another reliable source, cite the date in square brackets (MLA 2.6.1); do not use n.d.,
||Page or paragraph numbers, DOIs or URL for online works, disc # for DVD sets, place/city for physical objects, venue/city for live presentations, a code/number for objects in an archive.
If the source is available in more than one container, add elements 3-9 to the end of the entry for each container (see examples in MLA Handbook, pp. 32-36.)
Optional elements may be included if they are relevant to the source and/or your use of the source. Some optional elements are placed at the end of the Works Cited entry, while others are placed near a relevant core element. Please consult pages 50-53 of the MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition.
Optional elements include:
- Date of Original Publication
Spielberg, Stephen, director. Close encounters of the third kind. 1977. Director's cut, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2007.
- City of Publication:
- only provide city of publication if the source is associated with its city of publication (especially pre-1900 books), the name of city helps to identify different versions of source (e.g., British ed. vs U.S. ed.), or to help locate an unfamiliar publisher (e.g., a locally published newspaper)(51).
- Example (a book): Tupper, Frederick. The Shaksperean mob. London, 1938.
- Example (a local newspaper): Daily Journal [San Mateo]
- Total Number of Volumes:
Twain, Mark. The adventures of Tom Sawyer. Mississippi ed., 1923. Mark Twain's works, vol. 1, Harper & brothers, 1923-1924. 22 vols.
- Series Name and Number:
- Not italicized or in quotations.
- Example: A Song of Ice and Fire 3.
- Unexpected Type of Work (address, lecture, keynote speech, reading, transcript, etc.) :
Brown, Edmund G., Jr. State of the State Address. 21 Jan, 2016, California State Capitol, Sacramento. Address.
- Information about a Prior Publication:
- Originally published in Harper's Magazine, Jan. 2007, pp. 2-10.
- Including the Number and Session of Congress for bills, reports, or resolutions from the United States Congress:
- 107th Congress, 2nd Session, House Report 203.
- Date of Access:
- MLA Handbook suggests including date of access for online works (day, month, and year) (53).
- Example: Accessed 28 June 2016.
Other Useful Information
Please check the following sites for more information: