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Generative Artificial Intelligence (AI): Further Reading

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Resources and content below are intended to support further learning about AI tools and their potential application and impact in the teaching and learning environment.

Education, Academic Integrity, & AI

AI in the Field

Can I trust citations created by AI (ex., ChatGPT)?

While citations generated by ChatGPT may look convincing, they are results of aggregated textual information rather than evaluated information.

  • ChatGPT does not have the ability to read academic papers or access subscription databases of citations
  • ChatGPT is a language modeling AI that predicts the most likely words to come next in a sequence. That means it will generate citations upon request, based on it's "learned" model of what those citations are likely to look like. 
  • It is not possible to cite your sources using ChatGPT query. You can ask it to create citations, but it tends to make up sources that don’t exist or present information in the wrong format.
  • These citations should not be used for actual research or academic purposes as they are not based on any actual academic work or research.
  • ChatGPT cannot add citations to direct quotes in your text.
Parameters within which ChatGPR-3 operates

Response by OpenAI to a query to better understand the parameters within which ChatGPT-3 operates:

As an AI language model, I do not have the ability to access or browse the internet like humans do. My responses are based on the text input I receive from users, and my knowledge is derived from the vast amount of text data that I have been trained on.

The training data used to create my base architecture, GPT-3, included a diverse range of text sources, such as books, articles, websites, and other online content, covering a time span from the 1980s to 2020; with a knowledge cutoff of September 2021.

However, it's worth noting that my responses are based on the information that was available in the text corpus at the time of my training, and my knowledge is not constantly updated in real-time. As new information and events occur, my responses may not always reflect the latest developments, and it's possible that I may not have knowledge of recent events or changes.


OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT-3 (April 12, 2023 version) [Large language model].

Copyright, Intellectual Property, Privacy, Legal Implications, & AI


Citing Generative AI Content & Resources (ex., AI as co-author, reference source, etc.)

APA Style Guidance for Generative AI Reference and Parenthetical Citations

On April 7, 2023, APA Style released informal guidance in their APA Style Blog on how to cite, quote, and use ChatGPT and other generative AI tools.

  • Have you used ChatGPT or other AI tools in your research? Describe how you used the tool(s) in your Method or in a comparable section of your paper.
  • For literature reviews or other types of essays, or response/reaction papers, consider describing in your introduction how you used the tool.
  • In your text, provide the prompt you used, and include any portion of the relevant text that was generated in response.
  • Consider: Quoting ChatGPT’s/AI Generator's text from a chat session is more like sharing an algorithm’s output; thus, credit the author of the algorithm with a reference list entry and the corresponding in-text citation.
  • Consider: Including the full text of long responses from ChatGPT/AI Generators in an appendix of your paper or in online supplemental materials so that readers have access to the exact text that was generated.
APA Style & Generative AI Citations
How to Cite AI Generated Content - APA Style Recommendations  
Example 1, Quoting or reproducing the text created by Generative AI tools in your paper

When queried with, “Is the left brain right brain divide real or a metaphor?” the ChatGPT-generated resultant text indicated that although the two brain hemispheres are somewhat specialized, “the notation that people can be characterized as ‘left-brained’ or ‘right-brained’ is considered to be an oversimplification and a popular myth” (OpenAI, 2023).


OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

Example 2, Quoting or reproducing the text created by Generative AI tools in your paper

When given a follow-up query of “What is a more accurate representation?” the ChatGPT-generated text indicated that “different brain regions work together to support various cognitive processes” and “the functional specialization of different regions can change in response to experience and environmental factors” (OpenAI, 2023; see Appendix A for the full transcript).


OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

Example 3, Creating a reference to AI models and software

Note, The in-text citations and references above are adapted from the reference template for software in Section 10.10 of the Publication Manual (American Psychological Association, 2020, Chapter 10).


OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

  • Parenthetical citation: (OpenAI, 2023)
  • Narrative citation: OpenAI (2023)


Ayubi, E. (2023, April 7). How to cite ChatGPT. APA Style.


More Resources

The University of Queensland shares some additional suggestions for Citing ChatGPT and other generative AI as does Scribber. It is important to note that to-date, official APA, MLA, & Chicago Manual of Style AI citation recommendations are still pending. This section will be updated as guidance is shared.

  • Chicago Manual of Style guidance on citation of an artificial intelligence is pending. A Chicago Manual of Style Q & A forum has shared informal guidance information in this Citation, Documentation of Sources blog post.

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