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Chicago Citation Style, 17th edition

More Questions: Chicago Style Resources

Owl icon

The Purdue's Owl is a helpful online resource for Chicago citation.

  • This page provides information about creating footnotes and endnotes for BOOKS, ARTICLES, and WEB sources (giving credit for any quotes, facts, paraphrases, or summaries in your paper).
  • These pages will also help you with your Bibliography page.
  • This page displays a sample research paper. (May take a minute to load).

Chicago Style Format for Bibliography

When you use outside sources, you will need to create a Bibliography that tells your reader all the information they need to go find the source themselves if they want to.  Commonly used sources include:

BOOKS (NOTE: do not use bolded font)

Cornish, Dudley Taylor. The Sable Arm: Black Troops in the Union Army, 1861-1865. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1987.

JOURNAL ARTICLES (online) (NOTE: indent second line to .5" & do not use bolded font)

Castel, Albert. “The Fort Pillow Massacre: A Fresh Examination of the Evidence.” Civil War History 4, no. 1 (1958): 37. 50.10.1353/cwh:1958.0059


Satalkar, Bhakti. “Water Aerobics.” July 15, 2010.

Class Exercise

Dudley Taylor Cornish's The Sable Arm:

Albert Castel's "The Fort Pillow Massacre...":

Commonly Used Citation Styles

Librarians have created guides with examples of commonly used citation styles. The citation style you use depends on the academic discipline of your class and the instructor's preference.

Typically, English, history, language arts, cultural studies, and other humanities disciplines use MLA. 

Social Sciences, such as psychology, linguistics, sociology, economics, criminology, business, library science and nursing commonly use APA.

Some community college instructors require students to use CMOS, or Chicago Manual of Style, but you may encounter it at universities if you study literature, history, and the arts.

The Council of Science Editors (CSE) scientific style used for citing sources in the sciences, including biology, chemistry, computer science, engineering, geology, mathematics and physics

Your professors will include which citation style they expect you to use in the syllabus, or you can ask which citation style they would like you to use.