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History Research: How to Cite Sources

Annotated Bibliography Example

An annotated bibliography includes a citation for each source plus an annotation (a brief description and evaluation of the source.) To write an annotation, provide the following information about the source:

1. What is/are the author(s)' background or credentials?
2. Describe the publication.  Is it a popular magazine, an academic journal, etc? Does it have a particular political perspective?
3. Is the source research-based or opinion-based?  Does it provide general or in-depth information?
4. What are the main ideas presented?
5. What types of sources were used to support the points made in the source?


Gaffney, Catherine, and Kate Morgan-Olsen. "How Immigration Reform Will
     Put Migrants' Lives at Risk." The Nation 13 June 2013: n. p. The Nation.
     Web. 9 Apr. 2014. 

Gaffney and Morgan-Olsen are activists in the organization No More Deaths/No Más Muertes, which provides humanitarian aid to migrants along the Mexico-U.S. border. They are not academic experts or professional journalists, but they write based on their experience working with this organization. The Nation is a progressive political magazine that “champions civil liberties, human rights, economic justice, and peace.” ( This opinion article argues against increased border militarization. They believe that although immigration reform "will bring new protections for those who have managed to stay in the country, it will further punish those who have been deported." The authors support their points by including links to non-profit organizations’ websites, including the National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights and the American Civil Liberties Union, to support the statements that they present. These organizations also support immigrants' rights so the sources provide the same point of view as the authors.

Link to article:

Automated Bibliography Formatting