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MLA Citation Style 9th Edition: eBooks

Core Elements

1. Author.                    Author(s) and/or editor(s).
2. Title of source. Book Title: And Subtitle if Included. 
Container 1  
3. Title of container,
4. Other contributors, Other contributors (if applicable),
5. Version,  # ed. (edition if applicable),  the type of electronic edition (such as Kindle ed., Nook ed., EPUB ed., or PDF ed., If you cannot identify the file type, use e-book), 
6. Number, Volume (if applicable),
7. Publisher, Publisher (shortened name),
8. Publication date, Publication date,
9. Location. Page number (p.) or page range (pp.).  
Container 2  
3. Title of second container,  Database Name (if retrieved from a database),
4. Other contributors,  
5. Version,  
6. Number,  
7. Publisher,  
8. Publication date,  
9. Second location. URL (provide the protocol http :// or  https :// only for live link) or permalink.

Citation format for eBooks

Citation description:
Similar to the entry for a comparable printed work, but add the e-book version if known (ML

Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any)Title. edition if anye-book versionPublisherYear of publication.

Citation example:

MLA Handbook. 8th ed., e-book, Modern Language Association of America, 2016.

Rowley, Hazel. Franklin and Eleanor: An Extraordinary Marriage. Kindle ed.Farrar, 2010

When an e-book is retrieved from a database, add the additional container information (MLA 5.84):

Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). edition if anyPublisherYear of publication. Series title (optional- MLA  52). Title of container, Location (DOI or url without http:// or https:// in general but include them to provide live link if necessary if submitting paper online).

Citation example:

Wade, Christine J. Captured Peace : Elites and Peacebuilding in El Salva
Ohio UP, 2016. Ohio University Research in International Studies. EBSCOhost,

A chapter from an online book

Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). "Title of Chapter or Essay." Title of Book. Publisher, Year of publication, url.

Bryant, Peter J. "The Age of Mammals." Biodiversity and Conservation. University of California,