Optional elements may be included if they are relevant to the source and/or your use of the source. Some optional elements are placed at the end of the Works Cited entry, while others are placed near a relevant core element (usually after the Title of Source). Please consult pages 50-53 of the MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition.
Optional elements include:
- Date of Original Publication
- Provide the date of original publication if it helps reader to find out the work's date of creation or relation to other works. Put the date of original publication immediately after the source's title.
Spielberg, Stephen, director. Close encounters of the third kind. 1977. Director's cut, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2007.
- City of Publication:
- only provide city of publication if the source is associated with its city of publication (especially pre-1900 books), the name of city helps to identify different versions of source (e.g., British ed. vs U.S. ed.), or to help locate an unfamiliar publisher (e.g., a locally published newspaper) (MLA 51).
- Example (a book): Tupper, Frederick. The Shaksperean mob. London, 1938.
- Example (a local newspaper): The Daily Journal [San Mateo]
- Total Number of Volumes:
Twain, Mark. The adventures of Tom Sawyer. Mississippi ed., 1923. Mark Twain's works, vol. 1, Harper & brothers, 1923-1924. 22 vols.
- Series Name and Number:
- Not italicized or in quotations.
- Example: A Song of Ice and Fire 3.
- Unexpected Type of Work:
Brown, Edmund G., Jr. State of the State Address. 21 Jan, 2016, California State Capitol, Sacramento. Address.
- Information about a Prior Publication:
- Originally published in Harper's Magazine, Jan. 2007, pp. 2-10.
- Including the Number and Session of Congress for bills, reports, or resolutions from the United States Congress:
- 107th Congress, 2nd Session, House Report 203.
- Date of Access:
- MLA Handbook suggests including date of access for online works (day, month, and year) (53).
- Example: Accessed 28 June 2016.