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Outliers: Sources Cited in Outliers

Sources Cited by

Chapt. 1   Matthew Effect  /  Relative Age Effect

“Unequal Competition as an Impediment to Personal Development: A Review of the Relative Age Effect in Sport”

Barnsley and Thompson. "Birthdate and success in minor hockey: The key to the NHL."

“The Boys of Late Summer: Why do so many pro baseball players have August birthdays?” Greg Spira

“Birth date and sporting success” Nature; Apr 14, 1994; ProQuest Psychology Journals database (PLS library card required)


Chapt. 2   The 10,000-hour rule  /  Deliberate Practice

“BSD Unix: Power to the people, from the code: How Berkeley hackers built the Net's most fabled free operating system on the ashes of the '60s -- and then lost the lead to Linux.”  By Andrew Leonard

Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance

Creativity and Knowledge: A Challenge to Theories


Chapts 3 & 4: Geniuses

Lempert, R. O., Chambers, D. L. and Adams, T. K. (2000), “Michigan's Minority Graduates in Practice: The River Runs Through Law School”.

Limits of IQ: Lewis Terman & J. Robert Oppenheimer:

In Defense of IQ Testing: Lewis M. Terman Replies to Critics:

Debunking Intelligence Experts: Walter Lippmann Speaks Out:

Unequal childhoods : class, race, and family life / Annette Lareau 
Skyline Library book: HQ767.9.L37 2003

 The Vanishing Genius: Lewis Terman and the Stanford Study”
Gretchen Kreuter History of Education Quarterly, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Mar., 1962), pp. 6-18

Chapt. 5   Era of birth  /  Demographic trough / Optimum Time to Be Born

Birth and fortune: the impact of numbers on personal welfare By Richard A. Easterlin  (Google Books)

 “Demographic trough babies” My Narrative Banter (blog)

“The Rise and Fall of the WASP and Jewish Law Firms” Eli Wald 60 Stan. L. Rev. 1803

Chapt. 6   Harlan, Kentucky

“Social Disorganization and Reorganization in Harlan County, Kentucky.” Paul Frederick Cressey.

“Five Feuds: An Analysis of Homicides in Eastern Kentucky in the Late Nineteenth Century.” Keith F. Otterbein.

"Homicide and a Regional Culture of Violence." American Sociological Review 36:412-27. Hackney, Sheldon. 1969

"’When You Call Me That, Smile!’ How Norms for Politeness, Interaction. Styles, and Aggression Work Together in Southern Culture”


Chapt. 7  Ethnic Theory of Plane Crashes

NTSB. Review of flight crew-involved, major accidents of U.S. air carriers,1978 through 1990.

NTSB Aircraft accident report. Avianca 052 crash

Cultural diversity and crew communication

Culture in the Cockpit: Do Hofstede’s Dimensions Replicate?

Intercultural Communication in Cognitive Values


Chapt. 8  Rice paddies / Math tests

"If Man Works Hard the Land Will Not Be Lazy": Entrepreneurial Values in North Chinese Peasant Proverbs - R. David Arkush

Predictors of national differences in mathematics and science achievement of eighth grade students

Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study

The number sense : how the mind creates mathematics. / Stanislas Dehaene 
Skyline Library book: QA141.D44 1997


Chapt. 9   KIPP /  summer school

“What It Takes to Make a Student.” Paul Tough. New York Times Magazine  November 26, 2006

“The Case for More School Days.” Michael Barrett. The Atlantic Monthly  Nov. 1990, 78-106.

“Schools, Achievement, and Inequality: A Seasonal Perspective” Karl L. Alexander, Doris R. Entwisle & Linda S. Olson.  Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, v23 n2 p171-91 Sum 2001.,%20Entwisdel,%20and%20Olson%20(2001).pdf