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APA Citation Style : Internet resources

APA Citation Format (Commonly used for psychology and other social science papers)

Citation format for World Wide Web pages

Basic format (from :
Author, A. (date). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://URL
That format description in brackets is used only when the format is something out of the ordinary, such as a blog post or lecture notes; otherwise, it's not necessary.


Note: According to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 4.21, italicize a title when the document stands alone (books, reports, etc.) but not when it is part of a greater whole (chapters, articles, etc.) For example, use italics for the following:

  • titles of books, magazines, newspapers, or journals, films, videos, TV shows, and microfilm publications.

Press Release: examples from

American Psychological Association. (2010). Today’s superheroes send wrong image to boys, say researchers [Press release]. Retrieved from

The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. (2010). Administration officials continue travel across the country holding “Recovery Summer” events, project site visits [Press release]. Retrieved from

King Fish Media. (2010). The perfect marriage of content and technology: Is social media the new CRM? [Press release]. Retrieved from

Blog, Facebook, and Twitter: examples from

 Note: Titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized.


Freakonomics. (2010, October 29). E-ZPass is a life-saver (literally) [Blog post]. Retrieved from


Barack Obama. (2009a, October 9)Humbled. [Facebook update]. Retrieved from id=6815841748&share_id=154954250775&comments=1#s154954250775


Barack Obama. (2009b, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: [Twitter post]. Retrieved from

Personal Communications

According to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association -- 6.20, personal communications such as:

  • private letters
  • memos
  • nonrecoverable electronic communications (email or messages from nonarchived discussion groups or electronic bulletin boards)
  • personal interviews
  • telephone conversations, etc.

are not included in the reference list. Cite them in text only (see examples in in-text citation)

Example of citing an email in the main text:
(G. Brown, personal communication, January 4, 2016).

For archival or recoverable documents, use the following format (from Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association --7.10) :

Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day). Title of material. [Description of material]. Name of Collection (Call number, Box number, File name or number, etc.). Name of Repository, Location.

Video from Youtube or other video posting websites

According to the American Psychology Association website

  • If both the real name of the person who posted the video and the screen name are known:


Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video  [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx

  • If only the screen name of the person who posted the video is known:


Screen name. (year, month day).Title of video  [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx

The in-text citations include the author name outside of brackets (whichever that may be) and the date.